Case Studies

A selection of case studies can be found listed below. These have been drawn from research undertaken by the project team both from open sources, and from direct discussions with companies which produce proliferation-sensitive goods.

If your firm has had an experience which involved illicit procurement attempts or has received suspicious enquiries in the past, the project team would be pleased to talk to you. Please click here for more details.

Please Note…
All case studies taken from discussions with companies have been published with consent and anonomised accordingly. Some of the case studies use letters to refer to companies (e.g. Company A, Firm B). These letters are specific to individual case studies – i.e. Company B in one case study is not the same firm as Firm B referred to in a second case study.

Case Studies


Case Study

Features / Keywords

Civil Nuclear

Illicit Procurement of a Fluid Control Product

China; Distributers; Nuclear

MITEC’s Procurement for Arak

Valves; Heavy Water Reactor; UN sanctions


Israeli Illicit Procurement of Krytron Tubes from the USA

Electronics; weaponisation; guidance systems

Targeted: RAKON UK and suspicious enquiries from Iran’s missile programme

Suspicious enquiries; Compliance system; Iranian procurement

Machine Tools

Export Control Violation by Japanese Machine Tool manufacturer

Diversion risk; China; Reputational risk

Toshiba-Kongsberg and Illicit Procurement by the USSR

Reputational risk; Soviet illicit procurement; Compliance systems

Metals and Other Materials

Li Feng Wei and LIMMT

China; Red flags; multiple aliases; Letterheads; Iran; Due-dilligence

Illicit Procurement Involving Khaki & Yi

US; Illicit procurement; Global export; Controlling systems

Carbon Fibre to Iran

Hamid Reza Hashemi; Murat Taskiran; illegal export; US; Iran

Carbon Fibre to the People’s Republic of China

Peter Gromacki; illegal exports; US; China

Helicopter Parts to Iran

Amir Abbas Tamimi; illegal exports; US; Iran

Nicholas Kaiga and transhipment of Aluminium tubes

Nicholas Kaiga; aluminium; tubes; Iran; Belgium; Malaysia; US


John Reece Roth and Export Control

Academia; intangibles; research institutions


Fluval Apin S.L.

Valves; Spain; Iran; UAE;

Pressure Transducers

Levick and ICM Inc.

Pressure transducers; missile guidance; Malaysia; Iran

MKS instruments

Controlled delivery; compliance; best practice